Gender inequalities in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship in OECD countries

Despite numerous improvements in women’s educational and employment outcomes, many OECD countries have not achieved gender equality in economic opportunities and outcomes.

Despite numerous improvements in women’s educational and employment outcomes, many OECD countries have not achieved gender equality in economic opportunities and outcomes. On the occasion of International Women’s day on 8th March 2012, the OECD launches an on-line Gender Data Browser via

Among other findings, the OECD’s new Gender Browser reveals that :

  • Education

- Tertiary attainment levels are higher for girls than boys in most OECD countries.

- At university, women and men choose different fields of study. In 2009, on average, only 26% of graduates in engineering, manufacturing and construction were women, compared to more than 75% of graduates in health and welfare degrees.

  • Employment

- Women are still less likely than men to participate in the labour market : In 2010, on average across OECD countries, 65% of women were in the labour force compared to 79% of men.

- When in employment, they are also more likely to work part-time : Around 25% of women in employment worked part-time, compared to only 8% of employed men.

- Women do more unpaid work than men : In all OECD countries, women spend more time than men doing unpaid work : on average more than 2 extra hours per day. In Turkey men spend less than 2 hours a day in unpaid work, compared with over 6 hours for women.

- Although the gender wage gap has narrowed over time, it is still large : Among full-time employees in 2010, women earned, on average, 16% less than men. Hungary had the smallest gender gap in wages (6%). In Korea women earned, on average, 39% less than men.

- Women are still under-represented in top corporate jobs : in 2009, on average, women occupied only 10% of board seats in listed companies. This percentage varied greatly across countries, from 3% in Germany to 38% in Norway.

  • Entrepreneurship

- Women are less likely than men to own a business and employ others : on average in 2010, only 2% of women in work were employers, compared with 6% of men. In Estonia, only 1% of working women owned a business which employed other people, while this percentage was highest in Greece at 4%.

  • Politics

- Women’s presence in national parliaments has increased, but gender gaps are still large. In 2011, on average, women were occupying 25% of parliamentary seats in single or lower chambers of parliament, up from 16% in 1995. Cross-national variation is large : from 9% in Hungary to 45% in Sweden.

Read more about the OECD Gender Initiative via

Gender Data Browser

Photo : Mirari Erdoiza


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6 mars 2012

Thèmes : • Éducation • Emploi • Revenus • Education • Emploi


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