The World Bank, "World development report 2012 - Gender equality and development", Washington D.C, 2011.
The World Bank stresses the inequalities between men and women in its annual world development report 2012 (Gender equality and development, read the full report online in English, or a summary in French). The document underlines the major progress made throughout the world, especially concerning living conditions, access to education or employment. Two-thirds of all countries have achieved gender parity in terms of school enrollment, boys being even fewer in numbers than girls when it comes to higher education. Girls’ access to the labor market progresses slowly : in 2008 52% of women were participating in the labor market *, against 50% in 1980. If the gap between men and women has passed from 32 to 26 percentage points, it is mainly because the men’s participation has decreased from 82 to 78% within the same period...
The report underlines however that considerable efforts have still to be undertaken. In most developing countries the mortality rate of women is higher than of men. The gap appears particulary in births – for example, there were over one million girls “missing” at birth in China in 2008 to establish the demographic balance usually observed – and in the reproductive age, the mortality rate of women giving birth in sub-Saharan Africa is equal to the rate observed in Sweden... in 1830. The World Bank also stresses the persistence of professional gender segregation all over the world (women are more represented in communication services as well as the hotel and gastronomy branch for example). In poorer countries, they are more frequently engaged in undeclared and thus more precarious employment. After all, women are given always fewer responsibilities, be it in the sphere of employment or politics and even sometimes in their own families : in 1995 10% of parliamentarians were women, in 2009 they were still only 17%.
* Persons participating in the labor market are those who are either employed or looking for work.
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